Female Genital Mutilation


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Female Genital Mutilation

Female genital mutilation (FGM) is a traditional practice that involves the partial or complete removal of external female genitalia, with no medical justification. It is a violation of human rights, and it has devastating physical and psychological consequences for the victims. This practice is prevalent in many African countries, where it is deeply rooted in culture and tradition.

Regions practiced in Africa:

FGM is practiced in several countries in Africa, including but not limited to Somalia, Sudan, Egypt, Mali, Guinea, Gambia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Senegal, and Kenya. It is estimated that over 200 million women and girls worldwide have undergone FGM, with the majority of them living in Africa.

Health challenges associated with female genital mutilations:

FGM has severe health consequences, including but not limited to:

  1. Pain and Trauma: The procedure is painful and traumatic for the victim and can lead to psychological trauma.
  2. Hemorrhage: There is a high risk of severe bleeding during the procedure, which can be life-threatening.
  3. Infection: The procedure is often performed in unsanitary conditions, leading to an increased risk of infection.
  4. Urinary Problems: FGM can cause urinary tract infections, painful urination, and other urinary problems.
  5. Sexual dysfunction: FGM can lead to sexual dysfunction, including pain during intercourse, reduced sexual desire, and difficulty achieving orgasm.
  6. Obstetric Complications: Women who have undergone FGM are at higher risk of complications during childbirth, such as prolonged labor, hemorrhage, and stillbirths.

Interventions from the past to curb female genital mutilation

Several interventions have been implemented to curb FGM, including:

  1. Legal frameworks: Many countries have enacted laws prohibiting FGM, with penalties for those who perform or promote it.
  2. Community Education: Community education and sensitization campaigns have been carried out to raise awareness of the harmful effects of FGM and to promote alternative rites of passage.
  3. Healthcare Professional training: Healthcare professionals have been trained to recognize and manage the complications associated with FGM.
  4. Alternative rites of passage: Alternative rites of passage have been developed to replace FGM, allowing girls to transition into adulthood without undergoing the procedure.
  5. International Conventions: International conventions such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) have been used to advocate for the elimination of FGM.

Challenges and limitations:

Despite these interventions, female genital mutilation remains prevalent in many African communities due to deep-rooted cultural beliefs and a lack of understanding of the harmful effects of the practice. 

Some of the challenges and limitations include:

  1. Lack of resources: Some communities lack resources to provide alternative rites of passage, which are essential to eliminating FGM.
  2. Lack of government support: Some governments have not fully implemented laws prohibiting FGM, leaving girls and women at risk.
  3. Resistance to change: Some communities strongly resist any efforts to change their cultural practices, making it difficult to eradicate FGM.


Eliminating FGM requires a multifaceted approach, involving governments, communities, and international organizations. There is hope that, with continued efforts, FGM will be eliminated in Africa and around the world. This will require sustained advocacy, education, and engagement with communities to promote alternative rites of passage and eradicate the practice. In addition, governments need to enforce laws prohibiting FGM, and healthcare professionals need to be trained to manage the complications associated with the practice. Ultimately, eliminating FGM will require a collective effort from all stakeholders to promote the health, dignity, and rights of girls and women.


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